During your appointment a thermology technician will review your breast-related medical history,
thoroughly explain the screening process, and guide you through each step performing the scan.
The entire process will take approximately 30 minutes.
Step One: Disrobed from the waist up you sit behind a screen for 15 minutes for an
acclimation period, during which time we will review your breast-related medical history.
Step Two: Three images will be taken.
Step Three: Your hands will be submerged in cool water for one minute.
This VITAL STEP referred to as the Autonomic Challenge or cold-water stress test sets
. Therma-Scan apart from all other interpretation companies.
Step Four: Three final images are taken.
The Autonomic Challenge (cold-water stress test), also considered a functional test, is vital for an accurate and specialized scan. In the breast tissue the vascular structure (blood vessels) are close to the surface. This test challenges the blood vessels to contract. Healthy vessels will contract for a period of time after you submerge your hands in cold water. Unhealthy vessels (those at their earliest stages of development or that grow to "feed" a disease) do not contract. In addition, when there is a developing cancer there is evidence of nitric oxide which causes blood vessels to expand, thereby "feeding the disease". Both of these mechanisms of a disease process require the unparalleled expertise of the Therma-Scan- trained thermologists with a second reading by Dr. Philip Hoekstra for all breast scans. Dr. Hoekstra is our Science Clinic Director and has personally read over a million scans. You can read more about this "functional" process on our Why Thermography page and the FAQs, and how other breast tests are structured to find later stage breast changes which are structural changes. Why thermography: a change in the physiology (function) is always preceded by any structure changes. And for a more detailed, scientific explanation of the cold-water stress test scroll down to view a reprint with permission of Therma-Scan Reference Laboratory from their website.
When you make your appointment, we send a message to your personal email with a link to our laboratory’s on-line, secure patient history (or mail you the paperwork at your request). Since Therma-Scan thermology is an in-depth evaluation of the levels, patterns and behavior of the skin's temperature to achieve a meaningful evaluation, you should avoid conditions that would cause adverse influences. Thus we will also send you a link to our "Preparation Instructions" which explains what conditions to avoid prior to your scheduled appointment.
A copy of your report is mailed to you and your physician (MD or DO) of choice. Why? We want to ensure were a medical test such as ultrasound, MRI or even a mammogram necessary for follow-up, you are protected in having your physician aware of your results.
~ ~ ~ ~
Autonomic-Functional Challenge (cold stress)
In its earliest stages of development, diagnostic infrared images for breast cancer were evaluated, much like medical X-rays, by an empirical comparison of the shapes of thermal patterns with those of established disease (pattern recognition). Subsequently, important basic scientific discoveries have provided additional and more powerful means of evaluating breast thermograms for the detection of breast cancer.
The most important means by which the human body regulates its core temperature involves a mechanism of the autonomic nervous system that modulates the flow of blood to the skin. Specific metabolic abnormalities of cancer induce great increases in the production of a powerful dilator of blood vessels called nitric oxide. Other metabolites specific to cancer stimulate the development of a specific type of abnormal blood vessels (neo-angiogenic) to feed the growth of a solid cancer beyond a very small stage. These two factors cause excessive flow (hyperemia) of core body-temperature blood channeled to the cancer and produce the “Hot Spots” detected by thermal imaging, even the very smallest cancers; even pre-cancer.
The most powerful means of characterizing breast cancer’s excessive flow of core body-temperature blood is to perform an adaptive functional challenge as part of a quantitative thermal imaging procedure. A brief and controlled chill experience will challenge the adaptive mechanism of the autonomic nervous system and permits the distinction of uncontrolled blood flow that can differentiate the “Hot Spots” of breast cancer from normal breast tissue.
The best developed means of an adaptive functional challenge to indicate breast cancer by quantitative thermal imaging is a one-minute immersion of the hands into cool water between two sets of images. This “cold water challenge” has been demonstrated as a powerful component of the quantitative and objective analysis performed by our expert and Board-Certified thermologists at Therma-Scan Reference Laboratory (the interpretation company) along with pattern recognition, measured temperature differentials and time-based evolution. Anything less is to ignore important scientific discoveries and risk an inadequate evaluation.
Amalric R., Giraud D., Altschule C. Spitalier J.M. Value and interest of dynamic telethermography in detection of breast cancer. ACTA Thermographica 1976;1(2):89-96.
Anbar, Michael, (1994) Ch 2, p87 in QUANTITATIVE DYNAMIC TELETHERMOMETRY IN MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
Bansul, V., Toga, H., Raj J.U. Tone dependant nitric oxide production in ovine vessels in vitro Respir Physiol 1993;93:249-260.
Bongard, O., Bounameaux H. Clinical investigation of microcirculation. Dermatology 1993;186:6-11.
Ducharme, M.B., Tikaisis P. Forearm temperature profile during transient phase of thermal stress. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992;64:395-401.
Ducharme, M.B., Tikaisis P. In vivo conductivity of the human forearm tissues. J Apply Physiol 1991;70:2682-2690.
Ducharme, M.B., VanHelder W.P., Radomski M.W. Tissue temperature profile in the human forearm during thermal stress at thermal stability. J Apply Physiol 1991;71:1973-1978.
Fargius, J., Blumberg H. Sympathetic outflow to the hand in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Cardiovasc Res 1985;19:249-253.
Gallen I.W., MacDonald L.A. Effects of two methods of hand heating on body temperature, forearm blood flow, and deep venous oxygen saturation. Am J Physiol 1990;259:E639-643.
Guyton A.C. (1991) Body temperature, temperature regulation, and fever, Ch. 73 in TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY, 8th Ed. Saunders.
Hoekstra P.P. The autonomic challenge and breast thermology. Thermology International 2004(14);3,106.
Houdas Y., Ring E.F.J. (1982) Heat loss and conservation, Ch 7, p1988 in HUMAN TEMPERATURE: ITS MEASUREMENT AND REGULATION, Plenum Press, New York.
Johnson C.C. The actions and toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. Arch in Pharmacodyn Ther 1929;35:480-496.
Johnson J.M., Brengelmann G.I., Hales J.R.S., Vanhoutte P.M., Wenger C.B. Regulation of cutaneous circulation. Fed. Proc. 1986;45:2841-2850.
Konerding M.A., Steinberg F. Computerized infrared thermographic and ultrastructural studies of xenotransplanted human tumors on nude mice. Thermography 1988;3:7-14.
Macrae I.M., Dawson D.A., Norrie J.D., McCulloch J. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis: effects on cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993;13:985-992.
Rhodin J.A.G. (1981) Anatomy of microcirculation, in MICROCIRCULATION: CURRENT PHYSIOLOGY, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL CONCEPTS, Effros R.M. et al. (Eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 11-17.
Rowell L.B. (1986) HUMAN CIRCULATION. REGULATION DURING PHYSICAL STRESS. Oxford University Press, New York.
Schwartz J.H., Kandel E.R. (1991) Synaptic transmission mediated by second messengers, Ch. 12 in PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE, 3rd Ed. Schwartz J.H., Kandel E.R. and Jessell T.M. (Eds.) Elsevier, New York.
Searle N.R. and Sahab P. Endothelial vasomotor regulation in health and disease. Can J Anaesth 1992;39:838-857.
Printed permission Therma-Scan Reference Laboratory